Download A Military History of the Ottomans PDF

A Military History of the Ottomans

Author: Mesut Uyar
Publsiher: ABC-CLIO
Total Pages: 413
Release: 2009
Genre: Turkey
ISBN: 0275988767
Rating: 4.8/5 (67 downloads)

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This is a survey based on Ottoman and Turkish interpretations of how a nomadic society developed a professional military institution that would play a significant role in world history from 1300-1918. The book focuses the revolutions in military affairs and transformations that enabled the Ottomans to field an effective fighting machine.

Download A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Ataturk PDF

A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Ataturk

Author: Mesut Uyar Ph.D.
Publsiher: ABC-CLIO
Total Pages: 379
Release: 2009-09-23
Genre: History
ISBN: 031305603X
Rating: 4.6/5 (3 downloads)

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The Ottoman Army had a significant effect on the history of the modern world and particularly on that of the Middle East and Europe. This study, written by a Turkish and an American scholar, is a revision and corrective to western accounts because it is based on Turkish interpretations, rather than European interpretations, of events. As the world's dominant military machine from 1300 to the mid-1700's, the Ottoman Army led the way in military institutions, organizational structures, technology, and tactics. In decline thereafter, it nevertheless remained a considerable force to be counted in the balance of power through 1918. From its nomadic origins, it underwent revolutions in military affairs as well as several transformations which enabled it to compete on favorable terms with the best of armies of the day. This study tracks the growth of the Ottoman Army as a professional institution from the perspective of the Ottomans themselves, by using previously untapped Ottoman source materials. Additionally, the impact of important commanders and the role of politics, as these affected the army, are examined. The study concludes with the Ottoman legacy and its effect on the Republic and modern Turkish Army. This is a study survey that combines an introductory view of this subject with fresh and original reference-level information. Divided into distinct periods, Uyar and Erickson open with a brief overview of the establishment of the Ottoman Empire and the military systems that shaped the early military patterns. The Ottoman army emerged forcefully in 1453 during the siege of Constantinople and became a dominant social and political force for nearly two hundred years following Mehmed's capture of the city. When the army began to show signs of decay during the mid-seventeenth century, successive Sultans actively sought to transform the institution that protected their power. The reforms and transformations that began frist in 1606successfully preserved the army until the outbreak of the Ottoman-Russian War in 1876. Though the war was brief, its impact was enormous as nationalistic and republican strains placed increasing pressure on the Sultan and his army until, finally, in 1918, those strains proved too great to overcome. By 1923, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk emerged as the leader of a unified national state ruled by a new National Parliament. As Uyar and Erickson demonstrate, the old army of the Sultan had become the army of the Republic, symbolizing the transformation of a dying empire to the new Turkish state make clear that throughout much of its existence, the Ottoman Army was an effective fighting force with professional military institutions and organizational structures.

Download The Ottoman Army and the First World War PDF

The Ottoman Army and the First World War

Author: Mesut Uyar
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 466
Release: 2020-12-29
Genre: History
ISBN: 1000295087
Rating: 4.5/5 (87 downloads)

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This is a comprehensive new operational military history of the Ottoman army during the First World War. Drawing from archives, official military histories, personal war narratives and sizable Turkish secondary literature, it tells the incredible story of the Ottoman army’s struggle from the mountains of the Caucasus to the deserts of Arabia and the bloody shores of Gallipoli. The Ottoman army, by opening new fronts, diverted and kept sizeable units of British, Russian and French forces away from the main theatres and even sent reinforcements to Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria. Against all odds the Ottoman army ultimately achieved some striking successes, not only on the battlefield, but in their total mobilization of the empire’s meagre human and economic resources. However, even by the terrible standards of the First World War, these achievements came at a terrible price in casualties and, ultimately, loss of territory. Thus, instead of improving the integrity and security of the empire, the war effectively dismantled it and created situations and problems hitherto undreamed of by a besieged Ottoman leadership. In a unique account, Uyar revises our understanding of the war in the Middle East.

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Ottomans and Armenians

Author: Edward J. Erickson
Publsiher: Palgrave Macmillan
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2013-11-12
Genre: History
ISBN: 9781349472604
Rating: 4.9/5 (726 downloads)

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This book offers a comprehensive look at the growth and activities of the Armenian revolutionary committees and the corresponding Ottoman counterinsurgency responses from 1890-1915.

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The "German Spirit" in the Ottoman and Turkish Army, 1908-1938

Author: Gerhard Grüßhaber
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2018-04-09
Genre: History
ISBN: 311055478X
Rating: 4.4/5 (8 downloads)

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The study focuses on the mutual transfer of military knowledge between the German and the Ottoman/ Turkish army between the 1908 Young Turk revolution and the death of Atatürk in 1938. Whereas the Ottoman and later the Turkish army were the main beneficiaries of this selective appropriation, the German armed forces evaluated their (prospective) ally’s military experiences to a lesser extent. Through the analysis of archival and published sources and memoir literature the study provides evidence for the impact of this exchange on the armies of both countries and on the Turkish civil society. Indeed, the officer corps in both countries was a small but influential group of the society for the further development of their nations.

Download A Military History of the Mediterranean Sea PDF

A Military History of the Mediterranean Sea

Publsiher: BRILL
Total Pages: 489
Release: 2018-05-07
Genre: History
ISBN: 9004362045
Rating: 4.2/5 (45 downloads)

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This is a collection of essays that aims to offer a vertical history of war in the Mediterranean Sea, from the early Middle Ages to early modernity, putting the emphasis on the changing face of several different aspects and contexts of war over time.

Download The Ottoman Mobilization of Manpower in the First World War PDF

The Ottoman Mobilization of Manpower in the First World War

Author: Mehmet Beşikçi
Publsiher: BRILL
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2012-09-28
Genre: History
ISBN: 9004235299
Rating: 4.5/5 (99 downloads)

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The Ottoman Mobilization of Manpower in the First World War examines how the Ottoman Empire tried to cope with the challenges of permanent mobilization and how this process reshaped state-society relations in 1914-1918, focusing mainly on Anatolia and the Muslim population.

Download The Ottomans 1700-1923 PDF

The Ottomans 1700-1923

Author: Virginia Aksan
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2021-09-27
Genre: History
ISBN: 1000440397
Rating: 4.0/5 (97 downloads)

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Originally conceived as a military history, this second edition completes the story of the Middle Eastern populations that underwent significant transformation in the nineteenth century, finally imploding in communal violence, paramilitary activity, and genocide after the Berlin Treaty of 1878. Now called The Ottomans 1700-1923: An Empire Besieged, the book charts the evolution of a military system in the era of shrinking borders, global consciousness, financial collapse, and revolutionary fervour. The focus of the text is on those who fought, defended, and finally challenged the sultan and the system, leaving long-lasting legacies in the contemporary Middle East. Richly illustrated, the text is accompanied by brief portraits of the friends and foes of the Ottoman house. Written by a foremost scholar of the Ottoman Empire and featuring illustrations that have not been seen in print before, this second edition is essential reading for both students and scholars of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman society, military and political history, and Ottoman-European relations.

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Author: Edward J Erickson
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 66
Release: 2013-08-20
Genre: History
ISBN: 1472804589
Rating: 4.4/5 (89 downloads)

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Mustafa Kemal was one of the 20th century's greatest combat commanders. Born in Salonika to a middle–class family, this book follows the life of a great commander who served in the Italo–Turkish War of 1911–12 and the Balkan Wars of 1912-13 before taking command of the 19th Division based in Gallipoli during World War l. His sterling service led to his promotion to corps command during the fighting against the Russians in the Caucasus. Following the end of the war he took command of the nationalist forces struggling against the occupation of Turkey, and managed to defeat Greek forces that sought to occupy Smyrna, thus preserving Turkey's territorial integrity. Labelled as the 'Man of Destiny' by Winston Churchill, his services in Gallipoli and the War of Independence were pivotal to the success of his armies. After leading the nationalist army to victory, he established the modern Turkish Republic and became Turkey's first ever president taking the name Atatürk, meaning Father of the Turks, as his own.

Download The Military Revolution and Revolutions in Military Affairs PDF

The Military Revolution and Revolutions in Military Affairs

Author: Mark Charles Fissel
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 381
Release: 2022-12-05
Genre: History
ISBN: 3110657597
Rating: 4.7/5 (97 downloads)

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The Military Revolution and Revolutions in Military Affairs updates two central debates in military history--the one surrounding the concept of military revolution, and the one on military affairs--whilst advancing original research in both fields. Only a handful of publications consider the military revolution and the RMA in tandem. This book breaks new ground conceptually and appeals to an exceptionally large and diverse readership. Comparative revisionist studies of the military revolution and RMA better enable us to comprehend the historical continuum and reveal the new RMA for what it is. And for what it is shortly to become. This book presents original contributions within the "epicentre" of the military revolution debate, the 1500s, with an emphasis on gunpowder revolution (offensively and defensively). The connections with the Revolution in Military Affairs are then made explicit by scholars, a practitioner, and an analyst, with an emphasis on airborne lethal autonomous weapons systems. This is a chronologically broad and unique methodological approach to a historical debate that begs for clarification as we enter an era where killer robots will almost certainly take from humans their monopoly on violence.

Download The World the Plague Made PDF

The World the Plague Made

Author: James Belich
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 624
Release: 2022-07-19
Genre: History
ISBN: 0691222878
Rating: 4.2/5 (78 downloads)

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A groundbreaking history of how the Black Death unleashed revolutionary change across the medieval world and ushered in the modern age In 1346, a catastrophic plague beset Europe and its neighbours. The Black Death was a human tragedy that abruptly halved entire populations and caused untold suffering, but it also brought about a cultural and economic renewal on a scale never before witnessed. The World the Plague Made is a panoramic history of how the bubonic plague revolutionized labour, trade, and technology and set the stage for Europe’s global expansion. James Belich takes readers across centuries and continents to shed new light on one of history’s greatest paradoxes. Why did Europe’s dramatic rise begin in the wake of the Black Death? Belich shows how plague doubled the per capita endowment of everything even as it decimated the population. Many more people had disposable incomes. Demand grew for silks, sugar, spices, furs, gold, and slaves. Europe expanded to satisfy that demand—and plague provided the means. Labour scarcity drove more use of waterpower, wind power, and gunpowder. Technologies like water-powered blast furnaces, heavily gunned galleons, and musketry were fast-tracked by plague. A new “crew culture” of “disposable males” emerged to man the guns and galleons. Setting the rise of Western Europe in global context, Belich demonstrates how the mighty empires of the Middle East and Russia also flourished after the plague, and how European expansion was deeply entangled with the Chinese and other peoples throughout the world.

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European Revolutions and the Ottoman Balkans

Author: Dimitris Stamatopoulos
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2020-02-06
Genre: History
ISBN: 0755603273
Rating: 4.3/5 (73 downloads)

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The emergence of the Balkan national states in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries has long been viewed through an Orientalist lens, and their birth and evolution traditionally seen by scholars as the effect of the Ottoman Empire's decline. As a result, the role played by the great European revolutions, wars and intellectual developments is often neglected. Rejecting these traditional Orientalist narratives, this work examines Balkan nationalist movements within their broader European historical contexts. Drawing on a range of unused archival research and ranging from the Napoleonic era to the Bolshevik Revolution, contributors variously consider the complex roles played by Europe's internal geo-political ruptures in forming the Balkan states, and demonstrate how the Balkan intelligentsia drew inspiration from, and interacted with, contemporary European thought. Shedding light onto the strong intellectual, political and military interconnections between the regions, this is essential reading for all those studying Balkan and European history, as well as anyone interested in the question of national identity. Published in Association with the British Institute at Ankara

Download A Military History of Modern South Africa PDF

A Military History of Modern South Africa

Author: Ian van der Waag
Publsiher: Casemate Publishers
Total Pages: 362
Release: 2018-03-14
Genre: History
ISBN: 1612005837
Rating: 4.5/5 (37 downloads)

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The story of a century of conflict and change—from the Second Boer War to the anti-apartheid movement and the many battles in between. Twentieth-century South Africa saw continuous, often rapid, and fundamental socioeconomic and political change. The century started with a brief but total war. Less than ten years later, Britain brought the conquered Boer republics and the Cape and Natal colonies together into the Union of South Africa. The Union Defence Force, later the SADF, was deployed during most of the major wars of the century, as well as a number of internal and regional struggles: the two world wars, Korea, uprising and rebellion on the part of Afrikaner and black nationalists, and industrial unrest. The century ended as it started, with another war. This was a flash point of the Cold War, which embraced more than just the subcontinent and lasted a long thirty years. The outcome included the final withdrawal of foreign troops from southern Africa, the withdrawal of South African forces from Angola and Namibia, and the transfer of political power away from a white elite to a broad-based democracy. This book is the first study of the South African armed forces as an institution and of the complex roles that these forces played in the wars, rebellions, uprisings, and protests of the period. It deals in the first instance with the evolution of South African defense policy, the development of the armed forces, and the people who served in and commanded them. It also places the narrative within the broader national past, to produce a fascinating study of a century in which South Africa was uniquely embroiled in three total wars.

Download The Cambridge History of Turkey: Volume 2, The Ottoman Empire as a World Power, 1453–1603 PDF

The Cambridge History of Turkey: Volume 2, The Ottoman Empire as a World Power, 1453–1603

Author: Suraiya N. Faroqhi
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages:
Release: 2012-11-12
Genre: History
ISBN: 1316175545
Rating: 4.5/5 (45 downloads)

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Volume 2 of The Cambridge History of Turkey examines the period from the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 to the accession of Ahmed I in 1603. During this period, the Ottoman Empire moved into a new phase of expansion, emerging in the sixteenth century as a dominant political player on the world scene. With territory stretching around the Mediterranean from the Adriatic Sea to Morocco, and from the Caucasus to the Caspian Sea, the Ottomans reached the apogee of their military might in a period seen by many later Ottomans, and historians, as a golden age in which the state was strong, the sultan's might unquestionable, and intellectual life and the arts flourishing. In this volume, leading scholars assess the considerable expansion of Ottoman power and effervescence of the Ottoman intellectual and cultural world. They also investigate the challenges that faced the Ottoman state, particularly in the later period, as the empire experienced economic crises, revolts and drawn-out wars.

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Picturing the Ottoman Armenian World

Author: David Low
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2022-06-30
Genre: Photography
ISBN: 075560041X
Rating: 4.0/5 (1 downloads)

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The Armenian contribution to Ottoman photography in the last decades of the empire has been well-documented. Studios founded and run by Armenian Ottomans in Istanbul contributed to the exciting cultural flourishing of Ottoman 'modernity', before its dissolution after World War I. Less known however are the pioneering studios from the east in the empire's Armenian heartlands, whose photographic output reflected and became a major form of documenting the momentous events and changes of the period, from war and revolution to persecution, migration and ultimately, genocide. This book examines photographic activity in three Armenian cities on the Armenian plateau: Erzurum, Kharpert and Van. It explores how indigenous photography was rooted in the seismic social, political and cultural shifts that shaped Armenian lives during the Ottoman Empire's last four decades. Arguing that photographic practice was marked by the era's central movements, it shows how photography was bound-up in Armenian educational endeavours, mass migration and revolutionary activity. Photography responded to and became the instrument of these phenomena, so much so that it can be shown that they were responsible for the very spread of the medium through the Armenian communities of the Ottoman East and the rapid increase in photographic studios. Contributing to growing interest in Ottoman and Middle Eastern photographic history, the book also offers a valuable perspective on the history of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire.

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Faith and Sword

Author: Alan G. Jamieson
Publsiher: Reaktion Books
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2016-11-15
Genre: History
ISBN: 1780236883
Rating: 4.6/5 (83 downloads)

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With the recent surge in terrorist acts and military confrontations, as well as ever-strengthening fundamentalist ideologies, the Christian–Muslim divide is perhaps more visible than ever—but it is not new. Alan G. Jamieson explores here the long and bloody history of the Christian–Muslim conflict, revealing in his concise yet comprehensive study how deeply this ancient divide is interwoven with crucial events in world history. Faith and Sword opens with the tumultuous first centuries of the conflict, examining the religious precepts that framed clashes between Christians and Muslims and that ultimately fueled the legendary Crusades. Traversing the full breadth of the Arab lands and Christendom, Jamieson chronicles the turbulent saga from the Arab conquests of the seventh century to the rise of the powerful Ottoman Empire and its fall at the end of World War I. He then explores the complex dynamics that emerged later in the twentieth century, as Christendom was transformed into the secular West and Islamic nations overthrew European colonialism to establish governments straddling modernity and religiosity. From the 1979 Iranian revolution to the Lebanon hostage crisis to—in this new expanded edition—the recent wars in Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan, Faith and Sword reveals the essence of this enduring struggle and its consequences.

Download King of Battle: Artillery in World War I PDF

King of Battle: Artillery in World War I

Publsiher: BRILL
Total Pages: 394
Release: 2016-01-12
Genre: History
ISBN: 9004307281
Rating: 4.7/5 (81 downloads)

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In King of Battle: Artillery in World War I a distinguished array of authors examines the centrepiece of battle in the Great War, artillery. Going beyond tables of calibres and ranges, they look at organization, training, personnel, doctrine, and technologies.